About TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1 is a planetary system, located 12 parsecs away from the Solar system (39 light years), near the ecliptic, within the constellation of Aquarius. Around a star which is 12 times less massive than the Sun and only slightly larger than Jupiter, there are at least seven planets in orbit. The initial discovery was made by TRAPPIST, the TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope. Additional planets were subsequently identified using TRAPPIST and the Spitzer space telescope, the Very Large Telescope, UKIRT, the Liverpool Telescope and the William Herschel Telescope.

All the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system transit their star, meaning that they pass in front of it. The planets were discovered from the regular and repeated shadows that are cast during transit. Thanks to the transit signals we could measure the orbital periods of the planets and could calculate the sizes of the planets. The exact time at which the planets transit also provide us with a means to measure their masses, which leads to knowing their densities and therefore their bulk properties. The planets are consistent with a rocky composition.

We found that the planets have sizes and masses comparable to the Earth and Venus. Because we know the distance of the planets to their star, and the temperature of the star, we can deduce that they receive an amount of light that is similar to many of the planets in the Solar system, from Mercury to beyond Mars.

During transit, some of the starlight goes through the atmosphere of the planets, getting transformed by the chemical composition of the atmosphere and by its vertical structure. This means that we can remotely study the climates of terrestrial worlds beyond our Solar system! The TRAPPIST-1 worlds are the most optimal currently at our disposal. They are providing humanity with it first opportunities at discovering evidence of biology beyond the Solar system.

This website is edited by members of the discovery team of TRAPPIST-1 and contains scientific information about the system as well as artistic and educational material. Our aim is to collect our best and most up-to-date knowledge of this system, while communicating our fascination and awe for the remote worlds of TRAPPIST-1.

Principal publications on the system

Gillon, M. et al. 2017, Nature 542, p456. html
de Wit, J. et al. 2016, Nature 537, p69. html, pdf, bib
Gillon, M. et al. 2016, Nature 533, p221. html, pdf, bib

Various press annoucements

NASA - 2016-Feb-23: At least seven planets orbit TRAPPIST-1.
ESO - 2017-Feb-23: At least seven planets orbit TRAPPIST-1.
NASA - 2016-July-20: First atmospheric study on TRAPPIST-1b & 1c.
ESO - 2016-May-02: The first planets are identified in TRAPPIST-1.

Why focus on ultra-cool stars?

We chose to survey stars that have masses less than 15% the mass of the Sun, for planets. TRAPPIST-1A, the star at the centre of the TRAPPIST-1 system, is representative of our sample. These objects may appear exotic in comparison to our Sun, however they provide various advantages for the study and the understanding of Earth-like planets.

1 -- Ultra-cool stars are the most frequent kind of star in the Galaxy. Finding planets orbiting those stars is akin to study the most common planets that exist, which is essential to understanding the formation of Earth-like planets. They are also crucial in order to one day establish with what frequency biology has emerged in the Cosmos.
Finding planets with conditions, architectures and properties different from those of the Solar system allows us to place our Earth in context within the many outcomes of Nature.

2 -- Ultra-cool stars are small. This improves enormously our capacity to discover planets with the transit method. It also helps with the subsequent investigations that are required to learn about their atmospheres. The small size of the host star means the transit signals produced by Earth-sized planets are 80x more pronounced compared to similar planets transiting a Sun-like star (the signals from the atmosphere are also enhanced by 80 times). It is also nearly 50 times faster to confirm a planet. The Earth takes one year to orbit the Sun, whereas around ultra-cool dwarfs, a similarly temperate planet occupies an orbit lasting only a week.

3 -- It is currently beyond our means to measure the radius and the mass of an Earth-like planet with an Earth-like temperature, orbiting a Sun-like star, whereas we did it for TRAPPIST-1. Although we all think it is important to search for Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars, this is not currently practical. While our technologies and our analysis tools mature, we can start the study of terrestrial planets now, by considering ultra-cool stars, instead of waiting to do so in a decade or two on solar-like stars.

4 -- Finding planets orbiting ultra-cool dwarfs means that we find planets similar to our Earth on several aspects , but different on several others. For instance, the amount and type of light the planets receive is not the same as what we receive on Earth. Also the proximity of the TRAPPSIT-1 planets to their star means that they are likely to be tidally-locked. This signifies that there is a permanent dayside and a permanent nightside. How this affects climate remains mostly unknown. Planets like those of TRAPPIST-1 will open the study of what appears to our eyes like exotic climates, but that may in fact be some of the most usual climates outside the Solar system.

System

The observed and deduced parameters of the star and its entourage of seven planets are given here. We will attempt to keep those values updated.
Some graphs display the planets' parameters plotted against each other, at the bottom of the page.

TRAPPIST-1A - the star

Name 2MASS J23062928-0502285
Alternate name TRAPPIST-1
Right ascension α = 23h 06m 29.28s
Declination δ = -05º 02' 28.5''
Constellation Aquarius
Apparent magnitudes V = 18.80 ± 0.08, R = 16.47 ± 0.07,
I=14.0 ± 0.1, J = 11.35 ± 0.02, K = 10.30 ± 0.02
Parallax 82.58 ± 2.58 mas
Distance 12.1 ± 0.4 pc
Mass 0.080 ± 0.007 M
Radius 0.117 ± 0.004 R
Density 50.7 -2.2+1.2 ρ
Effective temperature 2559 ± 50 K
Luminosity 0.000525 ± 0.000036 L
Metallicity [Fe/H] +0.04 ± 0.08
Age > 500 Myr

TRAPPIST-1b

Orbital period 1.51087081 ± 0.00000060 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 322.51736 ± 0.00010 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.7266 ± 0.0088
Scale parameter (a/R) 20.50 -0.16+0.31
Impact parameter 0.126 ± 0.085 R
Transit duration 36.40 ± 0.17 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.65 ± 0.25º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.081
Semi-major axis 0.01111 ± 0.00034 AU
Radius 1.086 ± 0.035 R
Mass 0.85 ± 0.72 M
Density 0.66 ± 0.56 ρ
Irradiation 4.25 ± 0.33 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 400.1 ± 7.7 K

TRAPPIST-1c

Orbital period 2.4218233 ± 0.0000017 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 282.80728 ± 0.00019 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.687 ± 0.010
Scale parameter (a/R) 28.08 -0.42+0.22
Impact parameter 0.161 ± 0.080 R
Transit duration 42.37 ± 0.22 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.67 ± 0.17º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.083
Semi-major axis 0.01521 ± 0.00047 AU
Radius 1.056 ± 0.035 R
Mass 1.38 ± 0.61 M
Density 1.17 ± 0.53 ρ
Irradiation 2.27 ± 0.18 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 341.9 ± 6.6 K

TRAPPIST-1d

Orbital period 4.049610 ± 0.000063 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 670.14165 ± 0.00035 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.367 ± 0.017
Scale parameter (a/R) 39.55 -0.59+0.30
Impact parameter 0.17 ± 0.11 R
Transit duration 49.13 ± 0.65 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.75 ± 0.16º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.070
Semi-major axis 0.02144 ± 0.00065 AU
Radius 0.772 ± 0.030 R
Mass 0.41 ± 0.27 M
Density 0.89 ± 0.60 ρ
Irradiation 1.143 ± 0.088 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 288.0 ± 5.6 K

TRAPPIST-1e

Orbital period 6.099615 ± 0.000011 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 660.37859 ± 0.00035 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.519 ± 0.026
Scale parameter (a/R) 51.97 -0.77+0.40
Impact parameter 0.12 ± 0.10 R
Transit duration 57.21 ± 0.71 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.86 ± 0.11º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.085
Semi-major axis 0.02817 ± 0.00085 AU
Radius 0.918 ± 0.039 R
Mass 0.62 ± 0.58 M
Density 0.80 ± 0.76 ρ
Irradiation 0.662 ± 0.051 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 251.3 ± 4.9 K

TRAPPIST-1f

Orbital period 9.206690 ± 0.000015 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 671.39767 ± 0.00023 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.673 ± 0.023
Scale parameter (a/R) 68.4 -1.0+0.5
Impact parameter 0.382 ± 0.035 R
Transit duration 62.60 ± 0.60 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.680 ± 0.034º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.063
Semi-major axis 0.0371 ± 0.0011 AU
Radius 1.045 ± 0.038 R
Mass 0.68 ± 0.18 M
Density 0.60 ± 0.17 ρ
Irradiation 0.382 ± 0.030 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 219.0 ± 4.2 K

TRAPPIST-1g

Orbital period 12.35294 ± 0.00012 days
Mid-transit time 2 457 665.34937 ± 0.00021 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.782 ± 0.027
Scale parameter (a/R) 83.2 -1.2+0.6
Impact parameter 0.421 ± 0.031 R
Transit duration 68.40 ± 0.66 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.710 ± 0.025º
Orbital eccentricity < 0.061
Semi-major axis 0.0451 ± 0.0014 AU
Radius 1.127 ± 0.041 R
Mass 1.34 ± 0.88 M
Density 0.94 ± 0.63 ρ
Irradiation 0.258 ± 0.020 S
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 198.6 ± 3.8 K

TRAPPIST-1h

Orbital period 20 -6+15
Mid-transit time 2 457 662.55463 ± 0.00056 (Julian Date)
Transit depth 0.352 ± 0.033
Scale parameter (a/R) 117 -26+50
Impact parameter 0.45 ± 0.25 R
Transit duration 76.7 ± 2.5 minutes
Orbital inclination 89.80 ± 0.07º
Orbital eccentricity unknown
Semi-major axis 0.063 -0.013+0.027 AU
Radius 0.755 ± 0.034 R
Mass unknown
Density unknown
Irradiation 0.131 -0.067+0.081
Equilibrium temperature (A=0) 168 -28+21 K

TRAPPIST-1x

It is possible that other planets exist around TRAPPIST-1. Further observations may tell us about their presence.


Plots


video of the system:

Timeline

2017

Feb 23rd

Publication of the discovery in Nature.

Feb 22nd

Press conference at NASA's headquarters in Washington DC.

Jan 3rd

The scientific paper is accepted by Nature.

2016

Nov 21st

The paper describing the existence, and providing the radii and masses of seven planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system, is submitted to Nature. They also communicate their enthusiasm at the idea of pairing our scientific paper with a sci-fi short story.
(read it here).

Oct 7th

End of observations with Spitzer. By eye, it is clear that many planets transit the star at the centre of the TRAPPIST-1 system. Excitement is at its peak!

Oct 6th

TRAPPIST-North is inaugurated in Oukaïmeden Observatory, Morocco.

Oct 1st

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1h.

Sep 19th

Beginning of observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. TRAPPIST (North & South), the Liverpool Telescope and UKIRT are in support from the ground to fill in gaps in the Spitzer coverage (caused by a need to upload data back to Earth).

Aug 5th

Announce that the Spitzer Space Telescope will observe TRAPPIST-1 for nearly continuous 20 days. By this date our collected ground-based data made clear that more that the original period for TRAPPIST-1d was incorrect that more than 3 planets orbited the star.

Jun 6th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1d (using the nomenclature of the most recent paper).

Jun 3rd

First spectrum for the planets TRAPPIST-1b & 1c is publicly announced.

May 4th

TRAPPIST-1b & TRAPPIST-1c transit at the exact same time.
The Hubble Space telescope is recording the event.

May 2nd

Public announcement that three Earth-sized planets orbit a nearby ultracool dwarf.

May 1st

TRAPPIST resumes observations of the system (visible >1h from La Silla Observatory). It is soon joined by the Liverpool Telescope and the William Herschel in La Palma, the VLT in Chile, the 1 metre telescope at the South-African Astronomical Observatory, and UKIRT in Hawai'i.

Mar-Apr

Many requests sent to observatories around the globe to monitor for TRAPPIST-1, to confirm the orbital period of planet d, and search for additional planets.

Feb 18th

Scientific article is accepted by Nature.

Jan 11th

Submission of the discovery of TRAPPIST-1b & 1c, and proposing a solution of a planet 1d to Nature.

2015

December 15th

TRAPPIST stops observations of the system (visible <1h from La Silla Observatory)

December 11th

The VLT captures a triple transit on TRAPPIST-1, puzzling but amazing the team, later known to be a combination of TRAPPIST-1c, 1e & 1f.

October 27th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1b.

October 26th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1f, but not recognised right away as such.

October 17th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1e, but not recognised right away as such.

September 29th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1g, but mistaken as TRAPPIST-1d and announced as such in the first scientific paper on the system.

September 17th

First recorded transit of TRAPPIST-1c. Intense photometric monitoring of the star begins.

2013

October 3rd

First datapoints collected on TRAPPIST-1.

June 10th

The initial funding for SPECULOOS is accepted.

April 1st

First publication of TRAPPIST photometry on an ultra-cool dwarf, the nearby brown dwarf pair Luhman-16, is submitted to the Astronomy & Astrophysics journal.
These observations demonstrated it was possible to discover Earth-sized planets from the ground, using small telescopes.

2011

January 9th

First observation of an ultra-cool dwarf by TRAPPIST, in preparation for SPECULOOS.

2010

June 8th

First light of the telescope at La Silla Observatory. Operations are starting. The main focus is to participate in the search for hot Jupiters with WASP (www.wasp-planets.net) and to study small bodies of the Solar system.

2008

The funding for the construction of TRAPPIST is accepted.

Future

The study of the TRAPPIST-1 system is only starting.

In the short term, photometric follow-up using the repurposed Kepler satellite (named K2) along with with newer observations using Spitzer ought to reveal the period of planet 1h. We will also search for additional planets. Theses lightcurves, combined with ground-based measurements will increase the number of transit timing measurements for each of the planets. This will give us more accurate masses and orbital eccentricities. This will confirm whether the planets are mostly rocky or whether they contain a certain amount of volatiles, like water.

In the medium term, we can expect the first attempts at detecting the atmospheres of the TRAPPIST-1 planets, using Hubble, followed by deeper investigations thanks to the James Webb. The James Webb could in principle measure the temperature of the planets, and detect the chemical composition of their atmospheres. It will do so by collecting dozens of eclipses of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. The advantage of having seven planets in one system is that we will be able to compare them to one another.

TRAPPIST monitored a few dozen ultra-cool dwarfs photometrically. This is a prototype for a more important and ambitious survey called the Search for Planets EClipsing ULtra-COOl Stars (SPECULOOS), which is currently under construction at Cerro Paranal. With SPECULOOS, we will observe more than ten times more stars than TRAPPIST did, at a greater precision. Before the survey is over we expect to have discovered a dozen of planetary systems akin to TRAPPIST-1. All will be amenable for in-depth atmospheric investigations with the James Webb.

News

Here we list the progress reported in the scientific literature, in our understanding of the star and the planets within the TRAPPIST-1 system.

2016/10/13

Alibert & Benz

A computer simulation finds that would planets form around a star with a mass about that of TRAPPIST-1, then they most likely have sizes similar to the Earth, just like in TRAPPIST-1.

2016/09/20

He, Triaud & Gillon

A study of archival Spitzer data gives the first idea of how frequent Earth-sized worlds exist on ultra-cool dwarfs: 30-45% !! If so TRAPPIST-1 will soon have friends. Exciting!

2016/09/13

Howell et al.

Gemini high-contrast observations confirm TRAPPIST-1 is a single star. Planetary parameters are therefore robust.

2016/08/24

Anglada Escude et al.

A temperate, Earth-mass planet discovered orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Solar system, and not that unlike TRAPPIST-1.

2016/08/03

Cloutier & Triaud

It will be possible to study how inclined the orbital plane of the TRAPPIST-1 system is, with respect to its host star, giving clues on its past history.

2016/06/28

Demory et al.

Discovering systems like TRAPPIST-1 using K2, the refurbished Kepler spacecraft will be hard, but TRAPPIST-1 itself will be observed.

2016/06/03

de Wit et al.

Using Hubble, first attempt at measuring the atmospheres of Earth-sized planets. Planets TRAPPIST-1b & 1c do not possess Hydrogen envelopes.

2016/05/25

Barstow & Irwin

The TRAPPIST-1 planets confirmed to be good targets for the James Webb Space Telescope. Ozone, if present, would be detectable! The James Webb launches in Autumn 2018.

2016/05/05

Wheatley et al.

TRAPPIST-1 is visible in X-rays. Archival data from XMM/Newton contains a timeseries. TRAPPIST-1 is variable and as bright as the Sun in its quiet phase.

2016/05/02

Bolmont et al.

Water-loss due to entering the habitable-zone on the hot end is not always a problem. Applications to the TRAPPIST-1 planets, that could have retained oceans.

2016/05/02

Gillon et al.

TRAPPIST-1 discovered! First description of the planetary system, of some of its planets and of the star they orbit.

Posters

Posters inspired by the TRAPPIST-1 system.

by Amanda J. Smith
by NASA

Amanda J. Smith

Open, artistic interpretation on TRAPPIST-1

Infographics on TRAPPIST-1. Those posters display several of the quantities of the TRAPPIST-1 system against each other and and against the Solar system.

all images credits: IoA/Amanda Smith. Under Creative Commons Licence. Reproduction allowed, but not for commercial activities.

NASA

Check-out other posters from NASA/JPL's Exoplanet Travel Bureau!

Videos

The videos proposed below were produced for the various press releases related to the TRAPPIST-1 system. Check ESO, and NASA for terms of use. Click on the images to view.

Third press release, NASA, February 2017

Animation showing how to relate the data collected by the Spitzer Space Telescope to the physical reality. This show how beautiful, clean and unambiguous the detection for the planets is.

Video produced by NASA explaining how the system was identified, and why it was to chose to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The video also describes what know and don't know about the system and what we could hope to detect in the future.

The TRAPPIST-1 planets have orbital periods that are simple fractions of each others. This means that they are almost synchronised with one another (or, in scientific jargon, near commensurabilities). This disposition is handy since it allows us to measure their masses, from their relative interactions. The closer to commensurability, the more likely the planets are in resonance, which amplifies their interactions.
The synchronisation of the orbits means that, on a short length of time, the pattern of transits remains very similar; a repeated pattern means we have rhythm, and therefore music. TRAPPIST-1 has a tune!

scientific paper: Gillon, M. et al. 2017, Nature 542, p456. html

Third press release, ESO, February 2017

This is a rapid description of the TRAPPIST-1 system and the importance of its seven planets in the search for life in the Universe.

This is a more extensive description of the TRAPPIST-1 system, of the central star and its seven planets. There ESO describe how the system was discovered and the observations that following, demonstrating a rich system filled with planets with sizes and masses similar to the Earth.

scientific paper: Gillon, M. et al. 2017, Nature 542, p456. html

Second press release, NASA, July 2016

This video relates the results of observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. It gathered data while TRAPPIST-1b and TRAPPIST-1c transited the star together. This configuration permitted to rapidly acquire information about the atmospheres of the two planets: they do not contain Hydrogen or Helium. This established that the planets were more like Earth-like than mini gas-giants.

scientific paper: de Wit, J. et al. 2016, Nature 537, p69. html, pdf, bib

First press release, ESO, May 2016

Here, ESO describes how three planets were identified by the TRAPPIST telescope, and their particularity. The two first planets, TRAPPIST-1b, and 1c had orbital periods that were determined, whereas for the third, TRAPPIST-1d, a range of possible solutions were given. It was later found out that TRAPPIST-1f, and Trappist-1g had been mistaken for a same object. A new TRAPPIST-1d has been found, see third press release.

scientific paper: Gillon, M. et al. 2016, Nature 533, p221. html, pdf, bib

Stories

Short stories and graphic novels freely inspired by the TRAPPIST-1 system.

As scientists, we thought that one way to communicate how excited we are about this new system, is to allow artist to imagine what it would like there. Please enjoy these works keeping in mind that those are mostly works of fiction, written with artistic licence!

The Terminator, a short-story by Laurence Suhner
La Oportunidad, a short-story by Adam Burgasser
TRAPPIST-1, what is it?, a graphic novel by Lepithec
An Ode to 7 Orbs, a poem by Sean Raymond

The Terminator

by Laurence Suhner © 2017
translated from French by Sheryl Curtis.

The full text can be publicly accessed on Nature's website. It will appear here 90 days after the publication date.

Laurence also wrote a piece describing the source of her inspiration, which can be read here.

published in Nature, 542, p512 html
French version available here.
Version franÇaise ici.


La Oportunidad

by Adam Burgasser © 2017


“Se seguro mi queridita” mama whispers, the tangle of her grey hair scratching my chin. She cries, as she has for weeks, since we got word that I would go to university. “Se seguro…” she repeats, quietly; then pushes me back, points up and glares, “Show those espacitos how smart you are.”

I smile, knowing she can’t see the star I am going to, can’t see any stars in the airglow. Her fierceness falters. She turns to papa. She knows. The 40 lightyears to T-1d, which I will experience as a single month, is the rest of her life. I won’t see her again, nor papa, who stands proud and angry and hurt.
“You were to take care of us, you were to give us nietos” he said that night.
“You are leaving us to die alone on a tired world.”

He hasn’t spoken to me since. Same with my friends. When I told Ana, she spit on me and deleted me from her net, she calls me “la puta de las estrellas.” It is not jealousy; it is my betrayal. They will stay to harvest the fuelgrass around the Stockton Sea; I will travel to the stars.

A knock.

A tall white man in a slate uniform, face drawn. It is time to leave. Mateo lands a waist-high hug on me. “I’ll follow you chola, to the stars.” But he can’t. He’ll be a middle-aged man when I reach T-1d.
I blink back tears and leave without saying anything.



TRAPPIST-1, what is it?

Illustrated by Lepithec © 2017
From a text by Amaury Triaud. Colours by Mara
English version, here. French version, over there.

Released under Creative Commons Licence (see the end).



An Ode to 7 Orbs

by Sean Raymond © 2017

Wake up now people, I’ve got some big news!
You won’t want to miss this. You don’t want to snooze.
We just found some planets while we were stargazing
Gather 'round, listen up. These ones are amazing!

And it’s not just one new planet. There are seven!
All orbiting one star up there in the heavens.
(Like in Spinal Tap this thing goes to eleven…)
The thing ‘bout this system that just makes us squeal,
All seven are Earth-sized. Now, that’s a big deal!
And four of those planets could have the conditions
For liquid water! (based on their positions).

“How did you find these new planets?” you ask
Well, let me first say it was no easy task
To start off, we made a long list of stars.
Then,
We measured their brightness again and again.

Most of the stars just looked awfully boring
They stayed the same brightness. They weren’t worth exploring.
The ones we were looking for had little blips
Their brightness stayed constant except for small dips

Each dip is a planet that, just as it passes
In front of the star, blocks some light from our glasses
The brightness we measure goes blip every time
The planet goes once around. Then it re-aligns.
(Another way that you can think of the dips:
Each blip is like a single tiny eclipse)

Armed with the star’s brightness, we measured and figured
How big are the planets and how they’re configured.
This new star with planets is called TRAPPIST-1
It’s not a star that is at all like the Sun
It’s much much much smaller, and also less hot
Two thousand times fainter. (Now that is a lot).
An “ultracool dwarf” star they call it. And hey,
It’s just about 40-odd light years away.

The planets have letters for names. Now, you see,
From outside to in it’s h, g, f, e, d,
And, yes, as you guessed, after that, c and b
(The first one’s called b. There is no planet a.
The “a” is reserved for the star, by the way).

All seven planets are close to their star.
They orbit real fast since they’re not very far
Planet b’s year: one and a half Earth days.
If you lived there you’d have all sorts of birthdays!

Stand on a planet in the TRAPPIST-1 system
The planets you’d see in the sky – you can’t miss ‘em!
Their orbits are so close that they’d each appear
As big as the full Moon! Bigger when they’re near.
(Imagine the werewolf problem they must fear!)

The Sun in the sky would stay in the same place.
The planets’ always show the star the same face
The planets would shift and sometimes look like crescents
Just a peek of that’s sky’s like an antidepressant!

The two inner planets, planets b and c.
Are too hot for oceans. Water would be steam.
But the next four planets: d, e, f, and g
Are all at about the right place for a sea.
They could have liquid water, although
We don’t know if they even have H2 or O.
There’s plenty of planets out there that are dry
Just look at that big red dot up in Earth’s sky.
That’s Mars, it’s got water but only a trace
And Venus, of course, is a hot hot dry place.

The planets’ orbits were not set by chance
They seem to be following a cool cosmic dance
Take for example planets d and e
When e completes two orbits, d has done three.
They meet up again at the very same place
This orbital resonance is common in space.
Each pair of planets is in resonance. So,
It’s like the whole system is doing a tango!

We think that a resonant configuration
Is a signpost of the planets’ migration
That means that the planets’ orbits shifted
While they were forming, inward they drifted.

One last cool thing I really want to say-o
TRAPPIST-1’s actually linked with Galileo!
He discovered Jupiter’s four big old moons
That you can see with good binoculars too.
The TRAPPIST-1’s planets are much farther out
But take about the same time to go around.

Now let’s wrap up with a ditty for later
It’s written for you if you’re a planet hater
“Planets”, you say, “no big deal. There’s a zillion.
Eight in our Solar System and a billion
In orbit around other stars in the sky
Why should I care about this one little guy?”

I’d answer your question with a look back at history
Discovering new planets may help solve a big mystery.
Are we all alone? Is there other smart life?
(Do I have an alien doppelganger and wife?)

How can we answer this key age-old question?
It’s not at all simple. But here’s a suggestion
Any life out there will need its own planet
Maybe with oceans or ice caps or granite.
We now have the telescopes, tools and techniques
To find other planets and take a sneak peak
To try to find out if the Earth is unique.

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Unordered

  • Dolor pulvinar etiam.
  • Sagittis adipiscing.
  • Felis enim feugiat.

Alternate

  • Dolor pulvinar etiam.
  • Sagittis adipiscing.
  • Felis enim feugiat.

Ordered

  1. Dolor pulvinar etiam.
  2. Etiam vel felis viverra.
  3. Felis enim feugiat.
  4. Dolor pulvinar etiam.
  5. Etiam vel felis lorem.
  6. Felis enim et feugiat.

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Actions

Table

Default

Name Description Price
Item One Ante turpis integer aliquet porttitor. 29.99
Item Two Vis ac commodo adipiscing arcu aliquet. 19.99
Item Three Morbi faucibus arcu accumsan lorem. 29.99
Item Four Vitae integer tempus condimentum. 19.99
Item Five Ante turpis integer aliquet porttitor. 29.99
100.00

Alternate

Name Description Price
Item One Ante turpis integer aliquet porttitor. 29.99
Item Two Vis ac commodo adipiscing arcu aliquet. 19.99
Item Three Morbi faucibus arcu accumsan lorem. 29.99
Item Four Vitae integer tempus condimentum. 19.99
Item Five Ante turpis integer aliquet porttitor. 29.99
100.00

Buttons

  • Disabled
  • Disabled

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